a framework to produce a more just future. First, I recognize the existence of Old South and New South cities; New Orleans being old and 3 Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, "The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past The Journal of American History, Vol. Mari Matsuda s writing on reparations is instructive. 3 Andrew Patterson interview with David Pye, June 4, 28 19 fact, the odds that an African American could join the legal profession prior to the civil rights era were not very high. In sum, I show lawyers were somewhere in the middle of the accommodation-agitation dichotomy, employing a close approximation to Litwack s practical conservatism.
The intent is to begin to accent the specific African American legal culture that culminated in Brown. 7 In Things Fell Apart, I proffer we begin to consider the intra-racial convergence that aided this success, too. The collection is especially rich with materials from. From the slavery era until the present, the community has perceived of ministers as leaders while lawyers have had to win the trust of African Americans and have only relatively recently done. Lawyers, representing the interests of clients, promulgated legal narratives that white judges, and juries would hopefully find convincing.
Clay Smith s encyclopedic Emancipation: The Making of the Black Lawyer as a resource to essay about president abraham lincoln quotes locate African American lawyers from But, as Paul Finkelman accurately describes it, Emancipation is research in search of a theme. 16 7 Americans lived their lives in particular locales and responded to white supremacy in a suitable fashion. Instead, the naacp focused on the professional objective of earning respect for African American lawyers, seemingly forgetting the goals of their clients. Most professionals could retreat into the segregated community, avoiding regular contact with hostile whites; in contrast, lawyers had to protect client interests in court in front of white judges and juries. The races were to remain not only physically separated by law but also unequal in fact. The Dunning 30 21 Historians have since destroyed the idea of racial democracies, though many Brazilians in the upper middle class refuse to admit the existence of racial discrimination in the face of increasing studies noting income and educational disparities along racial lines. Today, no serious scholar accepts the conclusions of the Dunning School. Are you interested in joining a new profession or enhancing the knowledge and experience you already possess? In Chapter 4, We People Darker Than Blue, I explicitly begin the challenge to explore class differences within black America more fully.
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